Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:75:\"Non-static method Pagination::getInstance() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:305;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:46:\"Only variables should be assigned by reference\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:305;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:75:\"Non-static method Pagination::getInstance() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:400;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:46:\"Only variables should be assigned by reference\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:400;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:75:\"Non-static method Pagination::getInstance() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:342;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:46:\"Only variables should be assigned by reference\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:342;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:63:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1118;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:109:\"Declaration of views_handler_field::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:83:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_field.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1148;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:132:\"Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:82:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:165;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:128:\"Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:82:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:165;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:108:\"Declaration of views_handler_sort::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:82:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:165;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:134:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:84:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:599;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:110:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:84:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:599;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:127:\"Declaration of views_plugin_query::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:81:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_query.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:181;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:102:\"Declaration of views_plugin_style_default::options() should be compatible with views_object::options()\";s:5:\"%file\";s:89:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_style_default.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:24;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:130:\"Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:79:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:136;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:63:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1118;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:63:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1118;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:178:\"Declaration of content_handler_field::element_type() should be compatible with views_handler_field::element_type($none_supported = false, $default_empty = false, $inline = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:98:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:229;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:137:\"Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context\";s:5:\"%file\";s:96:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:25;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:137:\"Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context\";s:5:\"%file\";s:96:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:25;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:108:\"Declaration of views_handler_area::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:82:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_area.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:81;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:133:\"Declaration of views_handler_area_text::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:87:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_area_text.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:121;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:63:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1118;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789422) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:75:\"Non-static method Pagination::getInstance() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:305;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789423) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:46:\"Only variables should be assigned by reference\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:305;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789423) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:75:\"Non-static method Pagination::getInstance() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:400;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789423) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:46:\"Only variables should be assigned by reference\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:400;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789423) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:75:\"Non-static method Pagination::getInstance() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:342;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789423) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:46:\"Only variables should be assigned by reference\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:342;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789423) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:75:\"Non-static method Pagination::getInstance() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:305;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789423) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:46:\"Only variables should be assigned by reference\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:305;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789423) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Duplicate entry '749809541' for key 'PRIMARY' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:75:\"Non-static method Pagination::getInstance() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:73:\"/home/naturalh/public_html/sites/all/modules/pagination/pagination.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:400;}', 3, '', 'http://naturalhistorymag.com/samplings/183640/steps-toward-stroke-recovery', '', '3.84.139.101', 1563789423) in /home/naturalh/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

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Steps Toward Stroke Recovery | Natural History Magazine

Steps Toward Stroke Recovery

Mouse brain neurons (green) and inflammatory cells (red). Blocking CCR5 gene expression reduces the intensity of the latter.

Mary Teena Joy

No medical therapies currently exist to reduce long-term cognitive and motor disabilities caused by strokes and other traumatic brain injuries. In some cases, however, natural recovery is possible when the brain creates new connections after losing functions in damaged areas—a process that parallels memory formation through learning. In 2016, a University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) research team found that turning down the expression of the C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene in laboratory mice improved their learning and memory. Building on this finding, multiple studies in mice and humans have examined the potential role of CCR5 in stroke recovery.

A research team led by UCLA neurologist S. Thomas Carmichael traced which parts of the mouse brain expressed CCR5 before and after an induced stroke. They found that this gene’s signaling moved from immune cells in the healthy brain to its nerve cells, or neurons, shortly following stroke.

Next, the team tested how reducing CCR5 expression in mice affected recovery from stroke and traumatic brain injury. In one set of studies, they knocked down neuronal CCR5 expression using a virus. In a parallel set of studies, they used daily injections of an FDA-approved HIV drug, maraviroc, to block CCR5 signaling starting one day after stroke or traumatic brain injury and continuing for either three or nine weeks.

Across the board, mice with reduced CCR5 expression—induced either virally or after maraviroc treatment—saw significant improvements in early and late phases after stroke or traumatic brain injury. Mice with reduced CCR5 expression made fewer post-stroke stepping errors when walking across an uneven grid of metal rungs and showed less stroke-induced asymmetry in paw use, demonstrating improved motor function. Reduced CCR5 expression was also associated with improved cognitive function following traumatic brain injury, as measured by mouse memory tests. The researchers were able to pinpoint the molecular pathways involved in this recovery, which allow mouse brains to rewire and form new connections.

The research team collaborated with several Israeli institutions (lack of the CCR5 gene is more common in Ashkenazi Jews) to conduct an examination of nearly 450 human patients with mild stroke. They found that those born without CCR5 showed greater recovery in mobility, memory, and language. “This is the first time that a human gene has been linked to a better recovery from stroke,” said Carmichael. Next up is a clinical trial testing how stroke patients with CCR5 respond to maraviroc treatment. (Cell)


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